Chapter 1

The Science Of Life

1.1 Themes of Biology Section 1 Review p.10
1.2 The World of Biology Section 2 Review p.13
1.3 Scientific Methods Section 3 Review p.20
1.4 Microscopy and Measurement Section 4 Review p.24
Chapter 1 Review p.26
Chapter 1 Critical Thinking p.27

Chapter 2

Chemistry

2.1 Composition of Matter Section 1 Review p.34
2.2 Energy Section 2 Review p.37
2.3 Solutions Section 3 Review p.42
Chapter 2 Review p.44
Chapter 2 Critical Thinking p.45

Chapter 3

Biochemistry

3.1 Water Section 1 Review p.51
3.2 Carbon Compounds Section 2 Review p.54
3.3 Molecules of Life Section 3 Review p.59
Chapter 3 Review p.62
Chapter 3 Critical Thinking p.63

Chapter 4

Structure And Function Of The Cell

4.1 Introduction to the Cell Section 1 Review p.72
4.2 Parts of the Eukaryotic Cell Section 2 Review p.83
4.3 Multicellular Organization Section 3 Review p.88
Chapter 4 Review p.90
Chapter 4 Critical Thinking p.91

Chapter 5

Homeostasis And Transport

5.1 Passive Transport Section 1 Review p.100
5.2 Active Transport Section 2 Review p.104
Chapter 5 Review p.106
Chapter 5 Critical Thinking p.107

Chapter 6

Photosynthesis

6.1 Capturing the Energy in Light Section 1 Review p.116
6.2 The Calvin Cycle Section 2 Review p.120
Chapter 6 Review p.122
Chapter 6 Critical Thinking p.123

Chapter 7

Cellular Respiration

7.1 Glycolysis and Fermentation Section 1 Review p.131
7.2 Aerobic Respiration Section 2 Review p.138
Chapter 7 Review p.140
Chapter 7 Critical Thinking p.141

Chapter 8

Cell Reproduction

8.1 Chromosomes Section 1 Review p.147
8.2 Cell Division Section 2 Review p.151
8.3 Meiosis Section 3 Review p.156
Chapter 8 Review p.158
Chapter 8 Critical Thinking p.159

Chapter 9

Fundamentals Of Genetics

9.1 Mendel's Legacy Section 1 Review p.169
9.2 Genetic Crosses Section 2 Review p.178
Chapter 9 Review p.180
Chapter 9 Critical Thinking p.181

Chapter 10

Nucleic Acids And Protein Synthesis

10.1 DNA Section 1 Review p.189
10.2 RNA Section 2 Review p.192
10.3 Protein Synthesis Section 3 Review p.196
Chapter 10 Review p.198
Chapter 10 Critical Thinking p.199

Chapter 11

Gene Expression

11.1 Control of Gene Expression Section 1 Review p.208
11.2 Gene Expression and Development Section 2 Review p.214
Chapter 11 Review p.216
Chapter 11 Critical Thinking p.217

Chapter 12

Inheritance Patterns And Human Genetics

12.1 Chromosomes and Inheritance Section 1 Review p.226
12.2 Human Genetics Section 2 Review p.232
Chapter 12 Review p.234
Chapter 12 Critical Thinking p.235

Chapter 13

Dna Technology

13.1 The New Genetics Section 1 Review p.242
13.2 DNA Technology Techniques Section 2 Review p.248
13.3 Practical Uses of DNA Technology Section 3 Review p.252
Chapter 13 Review p.254
Chapter 13 Critical Thinking p.255

Chapter 14

Origin Of Life

14.1 Biogenesis Section 1 Review p.263
14.2 Earth's History Section 2 Review p.268
14.3 The First Life-Forms Section 3 Review p.272
Chapter 14 Review p.274
Chapter 14 Critical Thinking p.275

Chapter 15

Evolution: Evidence And Theory

15.1 The Fossil Record Section 1 Review p.281
15.2 Theories of Evolution Section 2 Review p.288
15.3 Evolution in Process Section 3 Review p.292
Chapter 15 Review p.294
Chapter 15 Critical Thinking p.295

Chapter 16

The Evolution Of Populations And Speciation

16.1 Genetic Equilibrium Section 1 Review p.302
16.2 Disruption of Genetic Equilibrium Section 2 Review p.308
16.3 Formation of Species Section 3 Review p.312
Chapter 16 Review p.314
Chapter 16 Critical Thinking p.315

Chapter 17

Human Evolution

17.1 The Study of Human Origins Section 1 Review p.321
17.2 Fossil Evidence of Hominid Evolution Section 2 Review p.326
17.3 Hypotheses of Hominid Evolution Section 3 Review p.330
Chapter 17 Review p.332
Chapter 17 Critical Thinking p.333

Chapter 18

Classification

18.1 History of Taxonomy Section 1 Review p.339
18.2 Modern Phylogenetic Taxonomy Section 2 Review p.346
18.3 Two Modern Systems of Classification Section 3 Review p.350
Chapter 18 Review p.352
Chapter 18 Critical Thinking p.353

Chapter 19

Introduction To Ecology

19.1 Ecology Section 1 Review p.365
19.2 Ecology of Organisms Section 2 Review p.372
Chapter 19 Review p.374
Chapter 19 Critical Thinking p.375

Chapter 20

Populations

20.1 Understanding Populations Section 1 Review p.382
20.2 Measuring Populations Section 2 Review p.387
20.3 Human Population Growth Section 3 Review p.390
Chapter 20 Review p.392
Chapter 20 Critical Thinking p.393

Chapter 21

Community Ecology

21.1 Species Interactions Section 1 Review p.402
21.2 Properties of Communities Section 2 Review p.405
21.3 Succession Section 3 Review p.408
Chapter 21 Review p.410
Chapter 21 Critical Thinking p.411

Chapter 22

Ecosystems And The Biosphere

22.1 Energy Transfer Section 1 Review p.419
22.2 Ecosystem Recycling Section 2 Review p.423
22.3 Terrestrial Ecosystems Section 3 Review p.429
22.4 Aquatic Ecosystems Section 4 Review p.434
Chapter 22 Review p.436
Chapter 22 Critical Thinking p.437

Chapter 23

Environmental Science

23.1 Humans and the Environment Section 1 Review p.446
23.2 The Biodiversity Crisis Section 2 Review p.451
23.3 Taking Action Section 3 Review p.458
Chapter 23 Review p.460
Chapter 23 Critical Thinking p.461

Chapter 24

Bacteria

24.1 Bacterial Evolution and Classification Section 1 Review p.473
24.2 Biology of Bacteria Section 2 Review p.477
24.3 Bacteria and Humans Section 3 Review p.480
Chapter 24 Review p.482
Chapter 24 Critical Thinking p.482

Chapter 25

Viruses

25.1 Structure Section 1 Review p.490
25.2 Viral Reproduction Section 2 Review p.495
25.3 Viruses and Human Disease Section 3 Review p.500
Chapter 25 Review p.502
Chapter 25 Critical Thinking p.503

Chapter 26

Protozoa

26.1 Overview of Protozoa Section 1 Review p.509
26.2 Protozoan Diversity Section 2 Review p.518
Chapter 26 Review p.520
Chapter 26 Critical Thinking p.521

Chapter 27

Algae And Funguslike Protists

27.1 Overview of Algae Section 1 Review p.529
27.2 Algal Diversity Section 2 Review p.533
27.3 Funguslike Protists Section 3 Review p.536
Chapter 27 Review p.538
Chapter 27 Critical Thinking p.539

Chapter 28

Fungi

28.1 Overview of Fungi Section 1 Review p.545
28.2 Classification Section 2 Review p.549
28.3 Fungi and Humans Section 3 Review p.552
Chapter 28 Review p.554
Chapter 28 Critical Thinking p.555

Chapter 29

The Importance Of Plants

29.1 Plants and People Section 1 Review p.567
29.2 Plants and the Environment Section 2 Review p.572
Chapter 29 Review p.574
Chapter 29 Critical Thinking p.574

Chapter 30

Plant Evolution And Classification

30.1 Overview of Plants Section 1 Review p.582
30.2 Nonvascular Plants Section 2 Review p.584
30.3 Vascular Plants Section 3 Review p.592
Chapter 30 Review p.594
Chapter 30 Critical Thinking p.595

Chapter 31

Plant Structure And Function

31.1 Plant Cells and Tissues Section 1 Review p.602
31.2 Roots Section 2 Review p.607
31.3 Stems Section 3 Review p.613
31.4 Leaves Section 4 Review p.618
Chapter 31 Review p.620
Chapter 31 Critical Thinking p.621

Chapter 32

Plant Reproduction

32.1 Plant Life Cycles Section 1 Review p.628
32.2 Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants Section 2 Review p.633
32.3 Dispersal and Propagation Section 3 Review p.640
Chapter 32 Review p.642
Chapter 32 Critical Thinking p.643

Chapter 33

Plant Responses

33.1 Plant Hormones Section 1 Review p.651
33.2 Plant Movements Section 2 Review p.655
33.3 Seasonal Responses Section 3 Review p.658
Chapter 33 Review p.660
Chapter 33 Critical Thinking p.661

Chapter 34

Introduction To Animals

34.1 The Nature of Animals Section 1 Review p.669
34.2 Animal Bodies Section 2 Review p.673
34.3 Comparison of Invertebrates and Vertebrates Section 3 Review p.679
34.4 Fertilization and Development Section 4 Review p.686
Chapter 34 Review p.688
Chapter 34 Critical Thinking p.689

Chapter 35

Sponges, Cnidarians, And Ctneophores

35.1 Porifera Section 1 Review p.695
35.2 Cnidaria and Ctenophora Section 2 Review p.702
Chapter 35 Review p.704
Chapter 35 Critical Thinking p.705

Chapter 36

Flatworms, Roundworms, And Rotifers

36.1 Platyhelminthes Section 1 Review p.714
36.2 Nematoda and Rotifera Section 2 Review p.718
Chapter 36 Review p.720
Chapter 36 Critical Thinking p.721

Chapter 37

Mollusks And Annelids

37.1 Mollusca Section 1 Review p.731
37.2 Annelida Section 2 Review p.736
Chapter 37 Review p.738
Chapter 37 Critical Thinking p.739

Chapter 38

Arthopods

38.1 Phylum Arthopoda Section 1 Review p.745
38.2 Subphylum Crustacea Section 2 Review p.750
38.3 Subphyla Chelicerata and Uniramia Section 3 Review p.754
Chapter 38 Review p.756
Chapter 38 Critical Thinking p.757

Chapter 39

Insects

39.1 The Insect World Section 1 Review p.770
39.2 Insect Behavior Section 2 Review p.774
Chapter 39 Review p.776
Chapter 39 Critical Thinking p.777

Chapter 40

Echinoderms And Invertebrate Chordates

40.1 Echinoderms Section 1 Review p.787
40.2 Invertebrate Chordates Section 2 Review p.790
Chapter 40 Review p.792
Chapter 40 Critical Thinking p.793

Chapter 41

Fishes

41.1 Introduction to Vertebrates Section 1 Review p.801
41.2 Jawless Fishes, Sharks, and Rays Section 2 Review p.806
41.3 Bony Fishes Section 3 Review p.812
Chapter 41 Review p.814
Chapter 41 Critical Thinking p.815

Chapter 42

Amphibians

42.1 Origin and Evolution of Amphibians Section 1 Review p.823
42.2 Characteristics of Amphibians Section 2 Review p.829
42.3 Reproduction in Amphibians Section 3 Review p.832
Chapter 42 Review p.834
Chapter 42 Critical Thinking p.835

Chapter 43

Reptiles

43.1 Origin and Evolution of Reptiles Section 1 Review p.843
43.2 Characteristics of Reptiles Section 2 Review p.849
43.3 Modern Reptiles Section 3 Review p.854
Chapter 43 Review p.856
Chapter 43 Critical Thinking p.857

Chapter 44

Birds

44.1 Origin and Evolution of Birds Section 1 Review p.863
44.2 Characteristics of Birds Section 2 Review p.870
44.3 Classification Section 3 Review p.874
Chapter 44 Review p.876
Chapter 44 Critical Thinking p.877

Chapter 45

Mammals

45.1 Origin and Evolution of Mammals Section 1 Review p.884
45.2 Characteristics of Mammals Section 2 Review p.888
45.3 Mammalian Classification Section 3 Review p.896
Chapter 45 Review p.898
Chapter 45 Critical Thinking p.899

Chapter 46

Skeletal, Muscular, And Integumentary System

46.1 The Human Body Plan Section 1 Review p.908
46.2 Skeletal System Section 2 Review p.914
46.3 Muscular System Section 3 Review p.920
46.4 Integumentary System Section 4 Review p.924
Chapter 46 Review p.926
Chapter 46 Critical Thinking p.927

Chapter 47

Circulatory And Respiratory Systems

47.1 The Circulatory System Section 1 Review p.937
47.2 Blood Section 2 Review p.943
47.3 The Respiratory System Section 3 Review p.948
Chapter 47 Review p.950
Chapter 47 Critical Thinking p.951

Chapter 48

Infectious Diseases And The Immune System

48.1 Nonspecific Defenses Section 1 Review p.958
48.2 Specific Defenses: The Immune System Section 2 Review p.965
48.3 AIDS Section 3 Review p.970
Chapter 48 Review p.972
Chapter 48 Critical Thinking p.973

Chapter 49

Digestive And Excretory Systems

49.1 Nutrients Section 1 Review p.982
49.2 Digestive System Section 2 Review p.989
49.3 Urinary System Section 3 Review p.996
Chapter 49 Review p.998
Chapter 49 Critical Thinking p.999

Chapter 50

Nervous System And Sense Organs

50.1 Central Nervous System Section 1 Review p.1008
50.2 Peripheral Nervous System Section 2 Review p.1011
50.3 Transmission of Nerve Impulses Section 3 Review p.1016
50.4 Sensory Systems Section 4 Review p.1022
Chapter 50 Review p.1024
Chapter 50 Critical Thinking p.1025

Chapter 51

Endocrine System

51.1 Hormones Section 1 Review p.1031
51.2 Endocrine Glands Section 2 Review p.1037
51.3 Feedback Mechanisms Section 3 Review p.1040
Chapter 51 Review p.1042
Chapter 51 Critical Thinking p.1043

Chapter 52

Reproductive System

52.1 Male Reproductive System Section 1 Review p.1049
52.2 Female Reproductive System Section 2 Review p.1053
52.3 Gestation Section 3 Review p.1058
Chapter 52 Review p.1060
Chapter 52 Critical Thinking p.1061

Chapter 53

Drugs

53.1 Role of Drugs Section 1 Review p.1067
53.2 Social Drugs Section 2 Review p.1072
53.3 Abuse of Drugs Section 3 Review p.1076
Chapter 53 Review p.1078
Chapter 53 Critical Thinking p.1079
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