Chapter 1

Introduction To Earth Science

1.1 What is Earth Science Section 1.1 Assessment p.5
1.2 A View of Earth Section 1.2 Assessment p.10
1.3 Representing Earth's Surface Section 1.3 Assessment p.17
1.4 Earth System Science Section 1.4 Assessment p.22
1.5 What Is Scientific Inquiry Section 1.5 Assessment p.24
Chapter 1 Assessment p.29
Standardized Test Prep p.31

Chapter 2


2.1 Matter Section 2.1 Assessment p.43
2.2 Minerals Section 2.2 Assessment p.49
2.3 Properties of Minerals Section 2.3 Assessment p.55
Chapter 2 Assessment p.61
Standardized Test Prep p.63

Chapter 3


3.1 The Rock Cycle Section 3.1 Assessment p.69
3.2 Igneous Rocks Section 3.2 Assessment p.74
3.3 Sedimentary Rocks Section 3.3 Assessment p.79
3.4 Metamorphic Rocks Section 3.4 Assessment p.84
Chapter 3 Assessment p.89
Standardized Test Prep p.91

Chapter 4

Earth's Resources

4.1 Energy and Mineral Resources Section 4.1 Assessment p.101
4.2 Alternate Energy Sources Section 4.2 Assessment p.107
4.3 Water, Air, and Land Resources Section 4.3 Assessment p.112
4.4 Protecting Resources Section 4.4 Assessment p.116
Chapter 4 Assessment p.121
Standardized Test Prep p.123

Chapter 5

Weathering, Soil, And Mass Movements

5.1 Weathering Section 5.1 Assessment p.132
5.2 Soil Section 5.2 Assessment p.142
5.3 Mass Movements Section 5.3 Assessment p.147
Chapter 5 Assessment p.153
Standardized Test Prep p.155

Chapter 6

Running Water And Ground Water

6.1 Running Water Section 6.1 Assessment p.163
6.2 The Work of Streams Section 6.2 Assessment p.170
6.3 Water Beneath the Surface Section 6.3 Assessment p.179
Chapter 6 Assessment p.183
Standardized Test Prep p.185

Chapter 7

Glaciers, Deserts, And Wind

7.1 Glaciers Section 7.1 Assessment p.198
7.2 Deserts Section 7.2 Assessment p.202
7.3 Landscapes Shaped by Wind Section 7.3 Assessment p.207
Chapter 7 Assessment p.213
Standardized Test Prep p.215

Chapter 8

Earthquakes And Earth's Interior

8.1 What is an Earthquake? Section 8.1 Assessment p.221
8.2 Measuring Earthquakes Section 8.2 Assessment p.228
8.3 Destruction from Earthquakes Section 8.3 Assessment p.232
8.4 Earth's Layered Structure Section 8.4 Assessment p.237
Chapter 8 Assessment p.243
Standardized Test Prep p.245

Chapter 9

Plate Tectonics

9.1 Continental Drift Section 9.1 Assessment p.253
9.2 Plate Tectonics Section 9.2 Assessment p.255
9.3 Actions at Plate Boundaries Section 9.3 Assessment p.264
9.4 Testing Plate Tectonics Section 9.4 Assessment p.268
9.5 Mechanisms of Plate Motion Section 9.5 Assessment p.270
Chapter 9 Assessment p.275
Standardized Test Prep p.277

Chapter 10

Volcanoes And Other Igneous Activity

10.1 The Nature of Volcanic Eruptioins Section 10.1 Assessment p.288
10.2 Intrusive Igneous Activity Section 10.2 Assessment p.292
10.3 Plate Tectonics and Igneous Activity Section 10.3 Assessment p.295
Chapter 10 Assessment p.303
Standardized Test Prep p.305

Chapter 11

Mountain Building

11.1 Rock Deformation Section 11.1 Assessment p.313
11.2 Types of Mountains Section 11.2 Assessment p.316
11.3 Mountain Formation Section 11.3 Assessment p.324
Chapter 11 Assessment p.329
Standardized Test Prep p.331

Chapter 12

Geologic Time

12.1 Discovering Earth's History Section 12.1 Assessment p.342
12.2 Fossils: Evidence of Past Life Section 12.2 Assessment p.346
12.3 Dating with Radioactivity Section 12.3 Assessment p.350
12.4 The Geologic Time Scale Section 12.4 Assessment p.355
Chapter 12 Assessment p.359
Standardized Test Prep p.361

Chapter 13

Earth's History

13.1 Precambrian Time: Vast and Puzzling Section 13.1 Assessment p.368
13.2 Paleozoic Era: Life Explodes Section 13.2 Assessment p.376
13.3 Mesozoic Era: Age of Reptiles Section 13.3 Assessment p.381
13.4 Cenozoic Era: Age of Mammals Section 13.4 Assessment p.384
Chapter 13 Assessment p.389
Standardized Test Prep p.391

Chapter 14

The Ocean Floor

14.1 The Vast World Ocean Section 14.1 Assessment p.400
14.2 Ocean Floor Features Section 14.2 Assessment p.405
14.3 Seafloor Sediments Section 14.3 Assessment p.409
14.4 Resources from the Seafloor Section 14.4 Assessment p.413
Chapter 14 Assessment p.417
Standardized Test Prep p.419

Chapter 15

Ocean Water And Ocean Life

15.1 The Composition of Seawater Section 15.1 Assessment p.427
15.2 The Diversity of Ocean LIfe Section 15.2 Assessment p.432
15.3 Oceanic Productivity Section 15.3 Assessment p.437
Chapter 15 Assessment p.443
Standardized Test Prep p.445

Chapter 16

The Dynamic Ocean

16.1 Ocean Circulation Section 16.1 Assessment p.453
16.2 Waves and Tides Section 16.2 Assessment p.460
16.3 Shoreline Processes and Features Section 16.3 Assessment p.467
Chapter 16 Assessment p.471
Standardized Test Prep p.473

Chapter 17

The Atmosphere: Structure And Temperature

17.1 Atmosphere Characteristics Section 17.1 Assessment p.482
17.2 Heating the Atmosphere Section 17.2 Assessment p.487
17.3 Temperature Controls Section 17.3 Assessment p.493
Chapter 17 Assessment p.499
Standardized Test Prep p.501

Chapter 18

Moisture, Clouds, And Precipitation

18.1 Water in the Atmosphere Section 18.1 Assessment p.509
18.2 Cloud Formation Section 18.2 Assessment p.516
18.3 Cloud Types and Precipitation Section 18.3 Assessment p.522
Chapter 18 Assessment p.527
Standardized Test Prep p.529

Chapter 19

Air Pressure And Wind

19.1 Understanding Air Pressure Section 19.1 Assessment p.536
19.2 Pressure Centers and Winds Section 19.2 Assessment p.542
19.3 Regional Wind Systems Section 19.3 Assessment p.548
Chapter 19 Assessment p.553
Standardized Test Prep p.555

Chapter 20

Weather Patterns And Severe Storms

20.1 Air Masses Section 20.1 Assessment p.563
20.2 Fronts Section 20.2 Assessment p.570
20.3 Severe Storms Section 20.3 Assessment p.577
Chapter 20 Assessment p.583
Standardized Test Prep p.585

Chapter 21


21.1 Factors That Affect Climate Section 21.1 Assessment p.591
21.2 World Climates Section 21.2 Assessment p.599
21.3 Climate Changes Section 21.3 Assessment p.603
Chapter 21 Assessment p.609
Standardized Test Prep p.611

Chapter 22

Origin Of Modern Astronomy

22.1 Early Astronomy Section 22.1 Assessment p.621
22.2 The Earth-Moon-Sun System Section 22.2 Assessment p.629
22.3 Earth's Moon Section 22.3 Assessment p.634
Section 22 Assessment p.639
Standardized Test Prep p.641

Chapter 23

Touring Our Solar System

23.1 The Solar System Section 23.1 Assessment p.648
23.2 The Terrestrial Planets Section 23.2 Assessment p.653
23.3 The Outer Planets Section 23.3 Assessment p.659
23.4 Minor Members of the Solar System Section 23.4 Assessment p.664
Chapter 23 Assessment p.669
Standardized Test Prep p.671

Chapter 24

Studying The Sun

24.1 The Study of Light Section 24.1 Assessment p.677
24.2 Tools for Studying Space Section 24.2 Assessment p.683
24.3 The Sun Section 24.3 Assessment p.690
Chapter 24 Assessment p.695
Standardized Test Prep p.697

Chapter 25

Beyond Our Solar System

25.1 Properties of Stars Section 25.1 Assessment p.706
25.2 Stellar Evolution Section 25.2 Assessment p.714
25.3 The Universe Section 25.3 Assessment p.721
Chapter 25 Assessment p.725
Standardized Test Prep p.727
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